The universe we live in is so vast and expansive we don’t know if it is infinite in quantity or just really, really big. We as microscopic dust in a cosmic soup of ether may never really know all the answers to life, much less the universe. The universe, like an uptight virgin, will not give away all her secrets until it deems us fit. We humans, perverse in nature are willing to smash the fabric of space & time to get to bottom of all that IS, existence. Here are some topics that scientist still have not been able to solve:

What Is Dark Matter Made Of?

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Dark matter is not called dark matter because it is black or colourless, it is because we don’t understand anything about it; including the colour. More than 80% of the know universe is made of dark matter. It does not emit any sort of light or radiation, meaning that it could possibly be seeping from a trans-dimension that is parallel or intersecting with our own. It was first hypothesized to exist, based on sound evidence, in the 1970s. The postulate behind dark matter existing is, when observing large bodies of space the gravitational force of the system far exceeded the capabilities of the mass present (a force acting on a mass is why gravity exists). Many scientist speculate that dark matter is comprised of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which are particles that 100 times more massive than protons but don’t readily interact with baryonic matter. Scientist also speculate that dark matter could be comprised of axions, neutralinos, and photinos.    


What Is Dark Energy?

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Dark energy could or could not be related to dark matter, but we are not sure yet. While dark matter accounts for 80% of all mass in the know universe, dark energy accounts for 70% of all contents in this universe. This 70% consists of both mass and energy making it easily larger in magnitude than dark matter. Dark matter is said to explain why our universe is expanding rather than shrinking. Regular matter, when given time, will bunch together due to gravity and the entire make up of the matter, down to the atomic particles, begin to decelerate. Dark energy does not dilute and mix with other matter so it stays consistent in density and force, this perpetual persistence is the reason why the universe is expanding. This is all of-course just based on hypotheses that fit our paradigm of existence.


Where Is Everyone?

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The length of the entire universe spans 92 billion light-years in diameter, each morsel of space is saturated with billions of galaxies, each hosting billions stars and planets. Oddly enough, Earth is the only planet observed to have life. According to statistical mathematics there is an impossibly low chance that we are the only ones alive in the Universe. This is known as the Fermi Paradox, there have been dozens of discussion pertaining to reasons why we have not encountered extraterrestrials. The possibilities that were discussed ranged from, whether or not we are successfully capturing signals, if they have been here this entire time and we didn’t know it, if they can’t/don’t want to talk to us, or — the most unlikeliest of cases— we on Earth are truly alone.


How Does Gravity Work?

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We all have a general understanding of gravity in terms of application but when you dissect it down and see what makes it tick, everyone is baffled. How much do we understand? This fundamental force is generated from all types of matter, and more massive objects therefore have a greater potentiality to attract other objects. While scientist have fully grasped how it works, we don’t understand why it exists. Why are atoms mostly empty space? Why is the force that glues atoms together a  different force from gravity? Is gravity really just a particle? These are questions that can not be answer by scientists to date.


Why Is There More Matter Than Antimatter?

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According to our current understanding of particle physics, matter and antimatter are equals but possess an opposite polarity. When matter and antimatter touch, a complete exchange of matter to energy occurs, as explained by Einstein. The bumping of matter and antimatter is a theory used to explain how the big bang was created. Scientist are puzzled because they should have destroyed each other completely within the infancy stages of the Universes inception. However, this was far from the case, as billions upon billions of galaxies, stars and planets exist in our Universe. Scientist still don’t understand why we have more matter than antimatter in our universe.


It’s A Wave… It’s A Particle!

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Rays of Photons (light), have a bipolar disorder, they behave both as a wave and matter. They produce interference pattern which are typical of waves. They do not have a mass but they have momentum, however a change is momentum can be used to derive a mass.

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They reflect off of surfaces, suggesting that it could be a wave or particle. They can be used to break electron from their “shells”, which indicates that they are particles. How does light determine whether it should act like a wave or a particle.

 


 

Why Does Light Have A Universal Speed Limit?

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C, is the universal constant for the speed of light. It is moves at a rate of 3.00×108 m/s, which is the frame of reference for all of existence (as we know it). Why this figure of all number though ? It is as if the Universe pulled a random number from a bag and proclaimed that this is the universal speed limit. To our understanding nothing can accelerate to the speed of light (unless it was massless), but we can get pretty darn close with small particles. Most of our mathematics, equations and formulas to explain everyday phenomenons (such as gravity, acceleration, speed etc) would not exist without this universal speed limit.

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